Key Figures



Richard Lerner
Early pioneer of science of individuality who recognized that human development must be studied from systems perspective. ]

Peter Molenaar
Mathematical psychologist who proved that standardized testing violates the ergodic theorem. He develops individual-centered methods of assessment.

Kurt Fischer
Pioneer of science of individuality who put forward Dynamic Skill Theory to explain human development.

Walter Mischel
Early pioneer who theorized that personality is always contextual.

Esther Thelen
Early pioneer who developed dynamical systems models of infant development.

Benjamin Bloom
Early pioneer of science of individuality in education who demonstrated that every student learns best in a self-paced environment.

Kurt Lewin
Early pioneer of contextual psychology.

Yuichi Shoda
His classic research on children demonstrated that personality is always contextual.

Lisa Feldman Barrett
Psychologist who showed that emotions are individualized, not standardized.

Michael Miller
Neuroscientist who demonstrated the individuality of the brain.

Paul van Geert
Pioneer of dynamic models of development.

Batja Mesquita
Editor of The Mind in Context, seminal work about the contextuality of human thought and behavior.

Eliot Smith
Cognitive psychologist who shows how emotions are dependent on social context.
Donella Meadows
Pioneer of system dynamics theory who authored classic text Thinking in Systems.

Alan Anticevic
Pioneer of personalized psychiatry.

John Murray
Pioneer of personalized psychiatry.

James Lamiell
Historian of psychology who studied William Stern, the very first scientist who advocated a science of individuality.

Denny Borsborrn
Psychologist who challenges essentialist views of personality and behavior.

John Nesselroade
A pioneer of dynamic models of development.